Imam Bukhari RH

by Shaikhul Hadith Mufti Ebrahim Saheb Desai 

https://jamiat.org.za/imam-bukhari-his-famous-al-jaamius-sahih/

1. Name
Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ismail ibn Ebrahim ibn Mugira ibn Bardizba Al Ju’fi Al Bukhari.

2. Birth and Lineage
Born on Friday (after Jumuah) 13 Shawwal 194 A.H. Passed away on Friday 1 Shawwal 256 A.H. (the night before Eid-ul-Fitr) (Hadyus Saari – pg.477).

Bardizba was a fire worshipper. His son Mugira accepted Islam on the hands of Ju’fi the governor of Bukhara. That is why the name Ju’fi appears at the end of his name. There is not much mention about Imam Bukhari’s grandfather, Ebrahim. However, his father, Ismail, was a muhaddith and Ibn Hibban has rated him in the 4th category of reliable muhadditheen. He has narrated from Hammad ibn Zaid and Imam Malik. Abu Hafs Kabir says that he was present at the time of Ismails death when he heard him say: “I do not have a single dirham of doubt in my earnings.”

3. Abilities (Remarkable Memory)
When Imam Saheb was 11 years old, he was once at the lesson of Imaam Daakli and Imaam Daakhli narrated the following sanad: Sufyan from Abu Zubair from Ebrahim. Imaam Saheb said that this sanad is incorrect because Abu Zubair did not narrate from Ebrahim. When it was checked up, Imaam saheb was correct. (Hadyus Saari pg.478).

Hashid bin Ismail mentions that Imam Bukhari (R.A.) in his youth use to come to the Mashaaikh of Basra but he never used to write. After 16 days, we rebuked him for not writing down the notes (Ahadith). After a while, he said: “You have rebuked me enough – bring your kitabs.” Haashid says: “We brought our kitabs and Imam Saheb mentioned each and every hadith with their sanads and also corrected our kitabs and said: “You think I’m wasting my time!” (At that time there were over 15 000 Ahadith taken from those Mashaaikh of Basra) (Hadyus Saari pg.478).

Once Ishaaq bin Raah-weih mentioned that I know the 70 000 Ahadith mentioned in my book like I’m looking at them. When this was mentioned to Imam Bukhari (R.A.), he replied: “You are astonished at that, perhaps in this time and age, there are such people who know 200 000 Ahadith as mentioned in the kitaab (by this Imam Saheb was referring to himself) (Hadyus Saari pg.487).

Once when Imam Bukhari went to Baghdad, the muhadditheen got together and took 100 Ahadith and mixed up their sanads (chain of narrators) and matan (text). Thereafter 10 muhadditheen were appointed to present ten of these Ahadith each to him incorrectly. When each Hadith was presented, he replied each time with these words: “I don’t know this Hadith.” After all the Ahadith were presented to him, he mentioned each Hadith as it was narrated by those ten muhadditheen and then mentioned the correct version of each one (Hadyus Saari pg.486).

Abu Azhar (R.A.) says; “Once when Imam Bukhari (R.A.) came to Samarkand, 400 muhadditheen got together and mixed up the sanads of Iraq with Yemeni sanads and the sanads of the Haram with the Yemeni sanads in trying to make Imam Saheb commit a mistake, but not one mistake was taken out by anyone of the 400 muhadditheen.

4. Ustaads
Imam Bukhari (R.A.) said he has more than 1000 Ustaads. He knows the chain of narrators of every Hadith from every Ustaad. Ibn Hajar has categorized Bukhari’s Ustaads into 5 groups:

  1. Tabi’een
  2. Contemporaries of Tabi’een but did not narrate.
  3. Heard from elderly Tabi’een.
  4. Narrates from his colleagues who were his seniors.
  5. Narrates from his juniors.

5. Students
90 000 people have heard the Bukhari Shareef directly from Imam Bukhari (Hadyus Saari pg.491).

6. Sacrifices
Imam Bukhari (rahmatullahi alaih) invested his money of inheritance from his father’s estate and he should receive 500 dirhams monthly. All this used to be spent in attaining knowledge.

When he went to Adam ibn Abi Ayas there was a delay in receiving money – he ate grass, after 3 days somebody gave a bag of coins.

He got sick, his container of food was shown to doctors, they said this is like the Raahibs. Imam Bukhari did not eat curry for 40 years. When people insisted, he accepted to have bread and sugar as curry.

7. Piety and Character
Imam Bukhari said: “From the time I knew backbiting is haraam I never spoke ill about anyone.”

The need once arose for Imam Bukhari (R.A.) to travel by sea. He had with him 1000 ashrafis (gold coins). While on the ship, he met a person who became very close to Imam Saheb. One day (while on the ship) that person began shouting when asked the reason for the shouting he mentioned that he had a thousand Ashrafis that were missing. While every passenger on the ship was being searched, Imam Bukhari (R.A.) threw his 1000 Ashrafis into the sea. After all the passengers on board were searched and the money not found, the people began rebuking that person. When the journey ended that person came to Imam Bukhari (R.A.) and enquired as to what he had done with the money. Imam Bukhari (R.A.) replied that he had thrown it into the sea. That person asked why he had borne such a huge loss. He replied: “Are you not aware that my entire life has been devoted to the Ahadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) and my authenticity is very renowned. I was not prepared to lose what I had earned my entire life because of a few gold coins.” (Zafrul Muhassileen – pg.103)

Whilst practising archery, the arrow hit a bridge and damaged it. He asked the owner for forgiveness and offered to repair it.

Abu Hafs Kabir sent goods to him which he promised to sell to somebody at a certain price. Others offered a higher price. He refused.

Imam Bukhari (R.A.) mentioned: “I did not write any Hadith in this book before taking a bath and performing 2 rakats and I deduced this kitab from 600,000 Ahadith in 16 years.

8. Imam Bukhari’s Mazhab
1). According to ibn Taimiyyah (R.A.), Imam Bukhari was a mujtahid and an independent Imam.

2). Allama Taqi’uddeen Subki has regarded him as a Shafi because he was the student of Humaidi, who was a Shafi. This conclusion is not correct because then Imam Bukhari should be regarded as a Hanafi in view of Ishaaq ibn Raahwa – Imam Bukhari’s Ustaad being a student of Abdullah ibn Mubarak and Abdullah ibn Mubarak was a Hanafi.

3). Ibn Qayyim (R.A.) says Imam Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Dawood were strong followers of Imam Ahmad ibn Hambal.

After studying and closely looking at Imam Bukhari one will realise that Imam Bukhari did not follow any one Imam, he has his independent views on many issues, therefore Allama Anwar Shah Kashmiri (R.A.) and Sheikh Zakaria (R.A.) have the same view as that of Allama Taimiyya that Imam Bukhari is a mujtahid.

Hazrath Moulana Fazlur Rahman is of the opinion that Imam Bukhari’s Usools (fundamental principles) is not known, it is difficult to regard him as an independent Imam and Mujtahid.

My humble view is that not knowing the Usool of any Imam is not a criterion to disqualify him from being a mujtahid, just as there were many other mujtahids other than the famous and commonly known 4 Imams. Their usools are not known, but they were mujtahids or else it would mean that there were only 4 mujtahids in this Ummat. Yes, one may say that since the usools of Imam Bukhari are not known, he cannot be followed, just as we cannot follow for eg. Sufyan Sawri, Sufyan Uyaina, etc. etc.

9. Demise
Imam Bukhari very frequently became a victim of differences and disputes and he breathed his last in that condition. He was expelled from Bukhara 4 times.

1st – When he issued a ruling that foster relationships are effective even by drinking goat and sheep milk. This was in his early days. There is speculation whether this incident is true or not.

2nd – Many Ulama of Bukhara held the opinion that Iman is not makhlooq, because of that those Ulama had to leave Bukhara. Imam Bukhari was also amongst them.

3rd – After his experience with Imam Zuhli in Nishapur, Zuhli wrote to the Ameer of Bukhara complaining about Imam Bukhari which resulted in his expulsion.

Concerning the dispute with Imam Zuhli in Nishapur – When Imam Bukhari came to Nishapur he was very warmly welcomed and Imam zuhli, who was also the Ustaad of Imam Bukhari, encouraged the people to benefit and listen to ahadith from Imam Bukhari. Once somebody asked the question whether Kalamullah is makhlooq or not. Imam tried to evade the question but upon insisting he answered that Kalamullah is not makhlooq but our reciting the kalamullah is maqluq. People did not fully understand this and made an issue that Imam Bukhari says that “lafzi bilquran maklooq.” Imam Zuhli said, He (Imam Bukhari) is a bid’ati and no one should go to him. People left Imam Bukhari (R.A.) except Imam Muslim and Ahmad ibn Salama. Zuhli did not allow any person who subscribe to Imam Bukhari’s view or associated with him to sit in his lesson. Imam Muslim and Ahmad ibn Salama chose to be with Imam Bukhari. A few days later Imam Bukhari left Nishapur and went to Bukhara and was expelled from there. This was the third time he was expelled from Bukhara. There is some speculation that when Imam Bukhari began having discourses in Nishapur, Zuhli’s discourses were not largely attended hence Zuhli initiated Imam Bukhari’s removal from Bukhara. And Allah Ta’ala knows best

4th – Imam Bukhari was called to Bukhara and he received a very large reception. Ameer of Bukhara, Khalid Zuhli asked him to come to his place and teach his children Bukhari Shareef. Imam Bukhari refused and Khalid then used people to make objections on Imam Bukhari’s beliefs and thus he was finally expelled from Bukhara. Imam Bukhari cursed Khalid and within a month Khalid was dismissed and imprisoned.

After Imam Bukhari was removed for the fourth time by Khalid. He went to Khatang (today Khaja Abad) by his relatives. Abdul Quddus (R.A.) says that I heard Imam Bukhari making dua in tahajjud: “O Allah, the earth has become narrow for me despite its spaciousness, therefore call me to you.”

Gaalib ibn Jibraeel says – I was in Khartang when people of Samarqand sent a messenger to propose and invite Imam Bukhari to Samarqand. Imam Bukhari got ready to go and after walking about 20 steps he felt weak and lied down and breathed his last. This was on the night of Eid – 256 A.H. After his death, musk scent emitted from his grave. His opponents came to the grave to make tawbah. Upon his death, 2 persons saw a dream in which he made ziyarah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) and the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) and they were waiting for somebody. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) said that they are waiting for Imam Bukhari.

10. IMAAM BUKHARI AND THE HANAFIS

Imam Bukhari’s family and friendly ties with Abu Hafs Kabir’s family.
Imam Bukhari was a student of Abu Hafs Kabir, he made sima of Jami Sufyan from him. Even after that Imam Bukhari and Abu Hafs Sagheer (Kabirs son) were contemporaries and colleagues in studying. It is obvious that because of Imam Bukhari and his family being close to Abu Haf’s family (Abu Hafs used to render financial help to Imam Bukhari) he was aware of the fiqh of the Ahnaaf.

In fact he first studied all the books of Abdulla ibn Mubarak who was a student of Abu Hanifa and member of the fiqh shura committee of the Ahnaaf.

However later in life when Imam Bukhari came into contact with Imam Humaidi and Nuaim Khuzaaie, who were very strongly opposed to the Ahnaaf – he too was influenced by their anti-Ahnaaf attitude.

11. Writings and Other Compilations
Imam Bukhari wrote many kitabs besides Bukhari Shareef (Al Jamius Sahih). Hereunder are some books which are written by Imam Bukhari

  1. Al Aadaabul Mufrad
  2. Juz – Raf-e-Yadain
  3. Juz – Qiraat-Kalful-Imam
  4. At-Taareekh-Al Kabeer – Al Awsat-As Sageer
  5. Kitabul Ashribah
  6. Kitabul Hibah
  7. Mabsoot
  8. Kitabul Ilal
  9. Kitabul Wuhdaan
  10. 10. Af’aalul Ibaad

11. ABOUT HIS BOOK AL-JAMIUS-SAHIH

Motivating factors of compiling Bukhari Shareef,
There were many books written on hadith but there were mixtures of Sahih and Daeef ahadith. Imam Bukhari felt that there should be a compilation of only Sahih ahadith. Once while sitting in the gathering of Ishaaq ibn Raahwai he (Ishaq) expressed his wish that a book of Sahih ahadith be compiled, when he heard this, his feeling of compiling such a book was strengthened and this was later consolidated with a dream wherein he (Imam Bukhari) saw a dream that he was waving away flies from Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) with a fan. The dream was interpreted as Imam Bukhari will sift out the fabricated Ahadith form the authentic Ahadith.

The dominant purpose of compiling Bukhari Shareef from the motivating factors was to compile and gather only Sahih ahadith. Apart from that, Imam Bukhari designed and brightened his book with other aspects as well, for eg., he would deduce fiqhi aspects from the hadith, he would express the authenticity of the hadith by presenting another sanad (chain of narrators). He also explains the meaning of many ahadith etc. It is due to the above factors that the hadith in Bukhari Shareef are not in a subject or topic sequence. However, Imam Muslim has arranged and compiled his book according to a topic sequence.

13. Specialities of Bukhari Shareef
1. It is the first book compiled only on Sahih ahadith.

2. It took the author 16 years to compile his book. The tarajims (topics) were prepared at the Rawdhah Mubarak.

3. Abu Zaid Mirwazi Shafi, who was a very fond shafi was sleeping in the mataaf area when he made ziyarat of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi wasallam) who asked him, why do you not make research and read my book. Abu Zaid asked: “O Prophet of Allah which is your book?” Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) replied the book of Muhammad ibn Ismail ie. Bukhari Shareef.

4. When reading at the time of difficulties and hardships, matters are made easy.

When read in a boat it does not sink.

5. There are 22 Sulusiyyaats in Bukhari Shareef. However, Darami has more sulusiyyaats than Bukhari Shareef.

14. Conditions of Choosing a Hadith
Muhammad Maqdasi says that the conditions of choosing a hadith in Bukhari Shareef are not mentioned by the author himself. The muhadditheen have pondered and studied the book and deduced these conditions, presuming they were the criteria set out by the author. Tahir Maqdasi says that the conditions of choosing a hadith in Bukhari Shareef are:

  1. The narrator is unanimously reliable. Here a question may arise as to why is there discussions on the reliability and authenticity of many narrators in Bukhari Shareef. Ibn Humam has answered this that certifying a narrator as reliable or unreliable is not absolute (qat’ie). A muhaddith certifies according to his understanding and research.
  2. The chain of narrators must be an unbroken one (itti’saal – see page five).
  3. If two narrators narrate from every narrator it is better but not a condition.
  4. Haakim, author of Mustadrak says it is a condition of Bukhari Shareef that there always be two narrators from a narrator. This is not correct. The first and last hadith indicates that even narrations with one narrator is accepted. In fact, there are about 200 such ahadith in Bukhari Shareef. Ziya Maqdasi has prepared a book Galaaibus Sahihain on this matter.

Hereunder is a more clear explanation as to what type of narrators are chosen by Imam Bukhari.

Imam Zuhri has five Islam & Muslims of students:

  1. Very reliable in memory and authenticity and always or for a very long time stayed in the company of Imam Zuhri.
  2. Also very reliable but stayed lesser than the first group.
  3. Stayed with Zuhri but were criticized by some.
  4. Did not stay with Zuhri and were criticized by some.
  5. Weak and unknown narrators.

Imam Bukhari took narrators of the first category, seldom would he take from the second category. Imam Muslim would take from the third category as well.

Abu Dawood and Nasai would take from the third category.

Tirmizi from the fourth category, Tirmizi is more superior to Abu Dawood because he discusses the reason a hadith is weak, etc.

Imam Abu Dawood uses the fifth category to support and consolidate. (Read after the section on itti’saal.)

A question arises that if according to Imam Bukhari, the chain of narrators must be an unbroken one, why are there ahadith-e-muanan (hadith with an-an).

According to Imam Bukhari for a hadith muanan to be under the category of unbroken chain of narrators, the narrator and from whom he is narrating must be contemporaries and must meet at least once.

In order to clearly understand the above, the following must be understood:
The narrator and from whom he is narrating, if they are not contemporaries, such a narration is named as Irsaale Jali.

If they are contemporaries but they did not meet, this is called Irsaale Khafi.

If they are contemporaries, met but narrates something he did not hear, this is Tadlees.

According to Imam Bukhari, the two must meet at least once. According to Muslim, merely being contemporaries is sufficient. Imam Bukhari views this as a possibility of being Irsaal, hence the narration will not be of an unbroken chain (muttasal).

One may raise an objection that according to Imam Bukhari, meeting once is sufficient, but still, there is a possibility of non-narration. The answer is that we are discussing a narrator who does not practice Tadlees. A mudallis’s narration is not muttasil, hence disqualifies from being accepted.

In the light of the above discussion, it is clear that Bukhari shareef is more superior to Muslim or any other book on hadith. Dare Qutni says:

The statement of Abu Ali Nishapuri: “There is no other kitaab on the surface of this earth more sahih than Muslim Shareef,” is opposed by Nishapuri’s Ustaad, Imam Nasai, who said there is no better book than Bukhari Shareef.

However, it must be noted that the superiority of Bukhari Shareef over Muslim Shareef and other books of ahadith is on a general basis, not that every hadith of Bukhari Shareef is more superior to any hadith in any other book of hadith.

15. The Topics (Taraajim) of Bukhari Shareef

  1. Sometimes the purpose of Imam Bukhari is not literal. He says something and means isharatun-nas or dalatun-nas.
  2. Imam Bukhari does not repeat a topic if so the purpose is different.
  3. Generally, the topic is like a claim and the ahadith follow it as proof, but in many instances, he means to explain the meaning of the following hadith.
  4. A tarjuma sometimes has two meanings, clear and unclear. People think and assume the clear meaning, hence they experience difficulty in reconciling the topic with the hadith, whereas the unclear meaning is the purpose of Imam Bukhari.
  5. Sometimes there is no link between the topic and hadith quoted under it, but the hadith with that link is nearby, if not further in the kitab, or maybe it is not in Bukhari Shareef, because it does not conform with the conditions of Bukhari Shareef.
  6. Sometimes with the topic, Imam Bukhari quotes sayings of sahaba and tabi’een (radhiallahu anhum), but those sayings have no direct relevance.
  7. Sometimes there is a baab but no hadith under the baab. The reason for this is that the hadith is somewhat related to the previous baab, just like the fasal of the fuqaha. Imam Bukhari’s purpose is also probably to sharpen the brain, that one ponders in the hadith and deduce some valid point.
  8. Sometimes there is a tarjama but no hadith under it. This is of different types:
    Either there are verses of quran after the topic, or the verses are part of the topic. In the above two, the verses are sufficient substantiations. However if there is a topic and no verse or hadith, the reason is either that the hadith is not in conformity with the conditions set out by Imam Bukhari or the hadith is mentioned elsewhere and to avoid exact repetition, he did not mention it or for sharpening the brains, that one ponders over a hadith to substantiate.
  9. Sometimes a topic is mentioned twice, the purpose of the second is to elaborate on the first one.

10. Sometimes such a topic is mentioned that does not need any explanation but he brings it to refute an opinion of some muhaddith. This is common in Bukhari Shareef against Musannaf Abdur Razzak and Ibn Abi Shaiba.

16. Repetitions in Bukhari Shareef
Generally, Imam Bukhari repeats a hadith but with a different chain of narrators or different words. However, there are about 21 or 22 places in Bukhari Shareef wherein there are exact (sanad or words) repeated. This is indeed a very negligent number in comparison to the vast number of ahadith in Bukhari Shareef. However, where a hadith is repeated but with a different chain of narrators or different words, the benefits of reporting them are:

  1. When one sahabi narrates a hadith, that same hadith is narrated by another sahabi, the purpose of quoting the other sahabi’s narration is to remove the misconception of non-familiarity (garaabat).
  2. One narrator quotes the hadith short, the other complete, Imam Bukhari quotes both as narrated by the narrators.
  3. A hadith is narrated with different words, for every change of word he brings a different topic and repeats it.
  4. If there are two possibilities in one narration, of broken and unbroken chain of narrators (muttasil and ghair muttasil) Imam Bukhari quotes both possibilities to indicate that the irsaal does not prevent the itti’saal’s acceptance.
  5. Similarly, if there are two possibilities, of dependant (mawkuuf) and complete (marfu) narrations.
  6. In some chain of narrators, if there is an addition, Imam Bukhari brings both versions to show that both are correct.
  7. One narration is muanan, the other chain expresses meeting, Imam Bukhari brings both to remove doubt.

17. Important Books related to Bukhari Shareef

  1. Aini (762-855 A.H.) – He wrote his sharah (commentary) over a period of 27 years. This sharah consists of 25 volumes. In this meanings of the words in the hadith are given and the link between the topic (baab) and hadith and many other aspects.
  2. Fathul Baari (Ibn Hajar Asqalani 773 – 852 A.H.) – This sharah was written over a period of 25 years. It consists of 13 volumes. Before this sharah, Ibn Hajar wrote (Alhadyus Saari) an introduction to Bukhari Shareef and Taghleequt-Taaleeq. After Aini wrote his sharah, Ibn Hajar wrote Intiqaasul I’tiraaz to answer Ainis objections. In Aini and Fathul Baari, there are answers of the same objections by one another. This was also due to some students eg. Burhaan ibn Khizar attending both discourses and informing both of them accordingly. However both the sharah have their own beauties and positive features, but Aini is easier to refer to and understood quickly, due to its concise and orderly fashion.
  3. Irshaadus Saari (851- 923 A.H. Qastalani) – This sharah is also known as Sharah Qastalani. This sharah is a synopsis of the above two sharahs.
  4. Alkawaakibud-daraari (Allama Kirmaani 717-786 A.H.) – The author was sleeping by the kaba and there he was inspired to keep this name for his sharah.
  5. Faizul Baari (Allama Badre Aalam) – Has written the main points from Allama Anwar Shah Kashmiris lessons in Bukhari Shareef.
  6. Alabwaab Wat-taraajim (Hazrath Sheikh Zakariyya) – This is a must reference for Abwaab as well as other important discussions.
  7. Laamiud Daraari – (Moulana Yahya Saheb) noted the points from Hazrath Moulana Rashid Ahmed Gangohi’s discourses of Bukhari Shareef.

 

You may refer to the following books for an in-depth understanding on the issue of Taqleed (following a particular Madhab).

1- The legal status of following a Mazhab by Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani

http://www.islamibayanaat.com/EnglishLiterature/LegalStatusOfFollowingAMadhab-MuftiTaqiUsmani.pdf

2- Differences of the Imams by Sheikhul Hadeeth  Moulana Zakariyya (Rahmatullahi Alayhi)

http://www.slideshare.net/IslamicBooks/differences-of-the-imams-by-shaykh-zakariyya-kandhelvi-ra

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10 Green Hadith

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

10 Green Ahadith
By Muhammad Fathi
1 Muharram 1440

federico-beccari-633001-unsplashDid the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) say anything about saving our planet? Did he promote any ideas or practices relevant to the world’s growing concern about the future of the earth and its resources?
Below is a collection of the Prophet’s Ahadith
 
Plant a tree even if it is your last deed:
1. Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “If the Hour (the day of Resurrection) is about to be established and one of you was holding a palm shoot, let him take advantage of even one second before the Hour is established to plant it.” (Reported by Ahmad and Al-Bukhan on the authority of Anas in Al Adab Al-Mufrad,)
 
Planting trees is a renewable source of hasanat:
2. Anas also reported that the Prophet said, “If a Muslim plants a tree or sows seeds, and then a bird, or a person or an animal eats from it, it is regarded as a charitable gift (sadaqah) for him. (Bukhari)
 
Conserve resources even when used for rituals:
3. Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-`Aas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet passed one day by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqas (May Allah be pleased with him) while he was performing wudu’ (ritual cleaning of body parts in preparation for prayer). The Prophet asked Sa`d, “What is this wastage?” Sa`d replied “Is there wastage in wudu also?” The Prophet said,Yes, even if you are at a flowing river.” (Ahmad and authenticated Ahmad Shakir)
 
Keeping environment clean is important:
4. The Prophet warned, “Beware of the three acts that cause you to be cursed: relieving yourselves in shaded places (that people utilize), in a walkway or in a watering place.” (Narrated by Mu`adh , hasan by Al-Albani)

5. Abu Zarr Al-Ghafari (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Removing harmful things from the road is an act of charity (sadaqah).” (Narrated by Abu Dharr Al-Ghafari)
 
No for over-consumption! Consider recycling and fixing before buying new items:
6. Abdullah ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet said, “The believer is not he who eats his fill while his neighbor is hungry.” (Saheeh al-Bukharee (112))

7. Asked about what the Prophet used to do in his house, the Prophet’s wife, `A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her), said that he used to repair his shoes, sow his clothes and used to do all such household works done by an average person. (Sahih Bukhari)

8. The Prophet said, “Whoever kills a sparrow or anything bigger than that without a just cause, Allah will hold him accountable on the Day of Judgment.”  The listeners asked, “O Messenger of Allah, what is a just cause?” He replied, “That he will kill it to eat, not simply to chop off its head and then throw it away.” (An-Nasa’i)
 
Animals should be cared for:
9. Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet said, “A man felt very thirsty while he was on the way, there he came across a well. He went down the well, quenched his thirst and came out. Meanwhile he saw a dog panting and licking mud because of excessive thirst. He said to himself, “This dog is suffering from thirst as I did.” So, he went down the well again, filled his shoe with water, held it with his mouth and watered the dog. Allah appreciated him for that deed and forgave him. The Companions said, “O Allah’s Messenger! Is there a reward for us in serving the animals?” He replied: “There is a reward for serving any living being.” (Bukhari)

10. Abdullah ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet said, “A woman entered the (Hell) Fire because of a cat which she had tied, neither giving it food nor setting it free to eat from the vermin of the earth.” (Bukhari)

The pen is closest to my heart, so may Allah make a means of hidayat for me and a change for all. In sha Allah…
Ameen

Opening of Bukhari Shareef by Hadhrat Mufti Muhammad Taqi Uthmani Saheb (Hafidhahullah)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Masjid Hidayah, Old Trafford – 14/04/2018

Background

Allah has granted this book a miraculous, wonderful and astounding status in terms of acceptance.

Imam Bukhari (Allah have mercy upon him) is buried in Uzbekistan, near Samarqand.

Ishaq ibn Rahwaye (Allah have mercy upon him) is the teacher of Imam Bukhari (Allah have mercy upon him), he authored a book, “Musnad Rahwaye” which is actually being published now. Once in class, Imam Ishaq stated, “I wish all the Saheeh Hadith of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) were gathered together in one compilation.

There were already books gathered with Haidth, but contained Saheeh, Hasan and Dhaeef Hadith.

The Dream and Glad Tidings

This comment of his teacher, ignited a burning fire in the heart of Imam Bukhari (Allah have mercy upon him), and he had an ardent passion to fulfil this request. Immediately after, Imam Bukhari (Allah have mercy upon him) had a dream of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessing be upon him). In the dream Imam Bukhari (Allah have mercy upon him) had a fan in his hand, through which he was sending coolness to the blessed and illuminous face of our beloved Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). The interpretation of which was, ‘I will gather Saheeh Hadith together, distinguishing them from the other unauthentic Hadith.’ He was very fortunate to be blessed with this honour. He would scrutinise and examine each Hadith carefully, sifting and picking out the authentic Hadith.

Scrupulousness and Diligence

For every Hadith, he would do Ghusl, pray 2 rak’ah and perform Istikharah. Mufti Saheb mentioned there are different narrtions as to how many Hadith in total are compiled in Bukhari Shareef. Some Ulama say, 7,000+ and some 8,000+ if we go with the minimum number, 7,000 Hadith – this would mean Imam Bukhari (Allah have mercy upon him) performed at least 14,000 rak’ah of Salah, performed Ghusl 7,000 times and then did Istikharah.

Thereafter he would show his Ustadhs; Abu Zur’ah (Allah have mercy upon him), Yahya ibn Mu’een (Allah have mercy upon him) and Ishaq Rahwaye (Allah have mercy upon him).

Islam and Arabs

The Arabs have pride and rightly so, they would have pride that Islam was established in Arabia. But Imam Bukhari (Allah have mercy upon him), was a resident of Bukhara. His Arabic wasn’t the most eloquent and articulate. He was accomplishing this task.

The weakest part of Bukhari Shareef in terms of linguistics is Kitabul Tafseer. This is evident, because Imam Bukhari (Allah have mercy upon him) wasn’t an expert of the Arabic Language. Hence some of words weren’t translated the best. For example,

يزاد في هذا الباب “هَمّ” هذا الحديث  instead of the word ايضاً

The word “هَمّ” is Farsi, but instead of ايضاً he wrote that word.

Thus, the Ummah has a consensus the most authentic book after the book of Allah is al-Jami al-Bukhari. A person cannot become an Alim without studying Bukhari Shareef.

The Student’s Enthusiasm

Allah opens ‘Uloom for the teacher upon the eagerness and zeal of the student. Just like a baby cries and milk draws forth from the chest of the mother.

Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki (Allah have mercy upon him) once stated to his students, “Whatever you have achieved is through me, but if you did not have the burning desire in your souls I would not have had such inspirations and stimulus as well.”

Remember, in the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), Abu Jahl and Abu Lahab were also present. But they had no zeal to learn and change.

Sanad/Chain

Our chain (sanad) is very important to us, this differentiates us from other religions. No other religions have such a system of “Sanad.” My Shaykh, Dr Abdul Hayy Arifi (Allah have mercy upon him) used to state a parable:

If there was a train that travelled from Karachi to Lahore, it was a fast train, very clean and travelled with speed. When it left the station at Karachi the station master attached a very old carriage at the end of this fast train, so that it can get “serviced.” When the train moved, the old carriage started squeaking! Somoene asked the old carriage, “Where are you going?” It replied, “You are lauhing at me, because my state is weak and poor. I may look deprived and pathetic, but the truth of the matter is when this new train reaches Lahore… so will I! Because my buffer and chain couplers are attached to this fast train.”

Likewise our connection to Ulama and pious people should be close and strong.

Imam Malik (Allah have mercy upon him) said: “If it were not for the Asnaad, people would say what they wanted.”

If we look at the Bible/Injeel and those people who sanctify this book, as Muslims we do as well to a certain extent. There is no chain to prove this book is still authentic. 300 years passed after Eesa (peace and blessings be upon him), there were many different variations of the Bible. In Nice, France, there was a conference in which all the priests decided we need to know which Bible is authentic. There was great dispute and disagreement. They decided to pray to God and fall in prostration and pray to Allah, at the same time they put all the Bibles on a table in a locked chamber. We pray that those Bibles which are fabricated, they fall on the floor. All night they did this, upon the crack of dawn they opened the door of the chamber. All the Bibles had fallen on the floor, except four. The historian who narrates this story further adds, they decided that four Bibles were authentic. But they had forgotten to write who had the keys to the chamber for that night!

Acquiring Knowledge Under a Teacher

It is important to study with a teacher, because of the student’s passion Allah blesses the teacher with noor and uloom and barakaat. This isn’t possible when the student studies alone. The system of studying under a teacher is finishing, it is very rare in the world such Hadith books are taught from start to finish. It only exists in India/Pakistan, due to the blessings of our Akabir. Many times I have experienced, I have done my motala for the a Hadith lesson, looked at the commentary as well. But in the lesson such things came into my heart that I had not known or researched. Quran and Hadith has been made by Allah in such a way in cannot be studied alone.

Never Miss a Hadith

In Karachi, we have 400-450 students in the final year – Dawrah. At least 60 -70 have never missed a Hadith, let alone missing a lesson. We call them ‘sahib e tarteeb’.

“All actions are dependent upon their intentions.”

“انما الاعمال بالنيات”

This Hadith is abused many times by people, they use it for wrongful purposes. People perform wrong actions and say, “my intentions are good. My heart is clean!” This is wrong, knowledge is important.

E.g. Someone is praying Salah incorrectly, you went ahead and showed him his mistakes which could break his Salah. He ignored you and said, “All actions are dependent upon their intentions… so my Salah is okay and correct!” This is wrong. You cannot use this Hadith to justify your wrong actions and lack of knowledge.

My late father, Hadhrat Mufti Muhammad Shafi’ (Allah fill his grave with noor) went for Hajj. When he reached Mina he had some guests who were known to be religious and in the political field, they arrived to meet him. My father questioned them if they had performed Rami? One replied, “No! I have made a representative (wakeel) on my behalf to perform Rami (stoning).” My father reprimanded him saying, “This is not permissible when you have the capability. This is only for those people who are unable to perform Rami!” The man said, “انما الاعمال بالنيات” (all actions are dependent upon their intentions). To which my father laughed and said, “If that was the case, there is no need for a representative as well. Just make an ‘intention’ of Rami.”

A wrong action does not become correct because the intentions are good. E.g a person steals money to give in Sadaqah, this is wrong.

Niyyah (intentions) play a major role in our everyday life, a mubah action can be rewarded if the intentions are good. If a person eats food to gain strength for ‘Ibadah and to do shukr, he/she will be rewarded accordingly. It is the same for spending time with one’s wife, to please her and act upon the Sunnah – you will be rewarded. The Prophet of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) raced with his wife, showed her the Ethiopian slaves playing for entertainment. All of this can gain reward if your intentions are correct.

My late father went for Hajj when I was a young boy 12 or 13 years old. Upon his return, he gifted me with a watch. I was so happy as I had never worn a watch before this. He remarked, “I bought this watch so you can tell the times for Salah. That should be your intention for wearing it.” Just look at the intention and reward behind this.

My late brother Muhammad Zaki (Allah have mercy upon him) who passed away many years ago, he would sing Naats and Nasheeds. He also had beautiful writing. When he learnt to write my father said, “Your first letter will be written to Hadhrat Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (Allah have mercy upon him).” When Hadhrat Thanwi received the letter, he replied, “It is pleasing to see you can write in such a fashionable way. But make your intention to write in such a nice manner, that it makes it easy for people to read, I am making you into a Sufi.”

People have different definitions of ‘Sufis’, a true Sufi is he who does everything for Allah. Not the one who flies in the skies!

It is vital we correct our intentions on every action we carry out. Mufti Saheb then mentioned the Hadith of the first group of people being thrown into Hell; one of which will be Ulama, those who learnt Ilm and taught for other than Allah.

Allah save us. Ameen.

 

Hadhrat Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani Saheb (Hafidhahullah) is one of the leading Islamic scholars living today. He is an expert in the fields of Islamic Jurisprudence, Economics, Hadith and Tasawwuf.

Born in Deoband in 1362H(1943 CE), he graduated par excellence form Dars e Nizami at Darul Uloom, Karachi, Pakistan. Then he specialized in Islamic Jurisprudence under the guidance of his eminent father, Mufti Muhammad Shafi RH, the late Grand Mufti of Pakistan. Since then, he has been teaching hadith and Fiqh at the Darul-Uloom, Karachi.

Translation

My Lord, I come to Your door as a beggar complete indigence, bringing only my humility and shame. A beggar who has neither a joli nor a begging-bowl.A beggar slain by his desires and cravings. Having squandered the treasure of Deen and intellect at the hands of the ego; Having sacrificed contentment of heart at the altar of lust and pleasure.

Losing my wealth in the quick-sand of heedlessness and sin. I have come to seek refuge under the covering of your Kaabah. Through the stains of sin the heart’s world is suffering. Aspirations are weak, the will broken and hope is dead. From whence should I find the strength to express the heart truly?

For in this snare have I passed every moment of my life. In short, having been burnt at the stake of my own ill-deeds. In abject poverty due to the evil of my state. To you have I brought my ill-stricken fate. Empty-handed of any deed befitting your House.

This House of yours, which is your court of Love and Grace, O Lord Tis wholly Light and the repository of all Lights O Lord Being completely ignorant of the manners of your Doorstep. A beggar knowing not how to beg. My tongue fails to convey my heart’s feeling. O Lord, have mercy on this wordless speech! These eyes are dry, O Lord, knowing not how to weep Festering spots in the heart that can’t be cleansed out. O my Lord I have come to your door as a beggar wholly indigent, in abject humility and full of shame.

Obituary: Muḥaddith al-Aṣr Shaykh al-Ḥadīth Hadhrat Mawlānā Muḥammad Yūnus Jownpūrī Saheb RH

Courtesy of www.nawadir.org

saharan

بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم

It is with great sadness and sorrow we received the news of the demise of our teacher and the teacher of our teachers, Muḥaddith al-ʿAṣr Shaykh al-Ḥadīth Mawlānā Muḥammad Yūnus Jownpūrī (d. 1438/2017) this morning at approximately 5am British Summer Time. When I retired to sleep just after 2am, I had received the news of the demise of Ḥaḍrat Mawlānā Ismāʿīl Badāt a resident of the blessed city of Madīnah, who like Shaykh Muḥammad Yūnus Jownpūrī was a disciple of Shaykh al-Ḥadīth Mawlānā Muḥammad Zakariyyā Kāndhelwī (d. 1402/1982). People from across the world have expressed their sorrow and grief and shared their condolences online and in person. My respected father Mufti Shabbīr Aḥmad (b. 1376/1957), who is one of the senior students and disciples of Shaykh Muḥammad Yūnus Jownpūrī, suggested to me to pen a brief obituary. The truth is that words cannot do justice to his personality but nonetheless an attempt is made to provide readers a brief insight into his life drawing from some of the published material as well as my personal experiences and the experiences of others, particularly, my respected father as well as Shaykh’s assistant and disciple Mawlānā Yūnus Randerā who relentlessly served Shaykh over the past two decades.

Birth and Early Life

Muḥaddith al-ʿAṣr Shaykh al-Ḥadīth Mawlānā Muḥammad Yūnus ibn Shabbīr Aḥmad ibn Sher ʿAlī was born on Monday 25 Rajab 1355 / 2 October 1937 in Jownpur in Uttar Pradesh, India. At the age of five, his mother passed away and he was looked after by his maternal grandmother who was extremely pious and affectionate towards him. He undertook his early Islamic education at Madrasah Ḍiyāʾ al-ʿUlūm Jownpūr under the tutelage of Mawlānā Ḍiyāʾ al-Ḥaq Fayḍʾābādī for whom Shaykh always expressed gratitude. I heard Shaykh on numerous occasions praise and recollect his encounters with Mawlānā Ḍiyāʾ al-Ḥaq Fayḍʾābādī and recall his benevolence towards him. Shaykh would regularly mention how his father had intended for him to work as a farmer or earn a living for the family through other means, however, he was interested in acquiring Islamic education. Thus, his pursuit of knowledge started in Jownpūr where he studied for several years and in Shawwāl 1377, he travelled to Saharanpur and enrolled at the famous seminary Maẓāhir al-ʿUlūm from which he graduated in 1380. During the three years, he studied under great luminaries most notably Shaykh al-Ḥadīth Mawlānā Muḥammad Zakariyyā Kāndhelwī (d. 1402/1982) and Mawlānā Asʿadullāh Rāmpūrī, both of whom also gave him Ijāzah in taṣawwuf and acted as his mentor and guide. The latter – Shaykh would regularly refer to him as Nāẓim Ṣāḥib – played an important role in the nurturing of Shaykh and Shaykh would regularly recall his encounters with him and his discourses. During his studies, Shaykh fell severely ill but persevered and completed his studies. Throughout his life, Shaykh endured hardships and illnesses but this did not prevent him from the pursuit of knowledge and continuing to study and serve.

Teachers

In addition to the three teachers mentioned above, other teachers of Shaykh include: Mawlānā Manẓūr Aḥmad Sahāranpūrī, Mufti Muẓaffar Ḥusayn and Mawlānā Amīr Aḥmad Kāndhelwī. Shaykh also acquired Ijāzah from many scholars including Mufti Maḥmūd Ḥasan Gangohī, Shaykh Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī Nadwī, Shaykh ʿAbd Allah al-Nākhibī, Shaykh ʿAbd al-Fattāḥ Abū Ghuddah, Shaykh Fakhr al-Dīn Murādābādī, Shaykh Aḥmad ʿAlī Surtī, Shaykh ʿAbd al-Raḥman al-Kattānī and others. Along with his teachers, I heard Shaykh say on several occasions that he benefited greatly particularly in the science of ḥadīth from the following experts: ʿAllāmah Ibn Taymiyah (d. 728/1328), Ḥāfiẓ Dhahabī (d. 748/1348), Ḥāfiẓ Ibn Kathīr (d. 774/1373), Ḥāfiẓ Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 751/1350), Ḥāfiẓ Ibn Rajab (d. 795/1393), Ḥāfiẓ Ibn ʿAbd al-Hādī (d. 744/1343), Ḥāfiẓ Zaylaʿī (d. 762/1360) and Ḥāfiz Ibn Ḥajar (d. 852/1149).

Appointment as teacher and Shaykh al-Ḥadīth

A year after his graduation in 1380, in Shawwāl 1381, Shaykh was formally appointed as a teacher in Maẓāhir al-ʿUlūm Saharanpur. For the next few years, Shaykh taught various books including Sharḥ al-Wiqāyah, Hidāyah, Usūl al-Shāshī, Mukhtaṣar al-Maʿānī, Nūr al-Anwār, Mishkāt al-Maṣābīḥ, Sunan Abī Dāwūd, Sunan Ibn Mājah, Sunan al-Nasāʾī, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, Muwattāʾ Mālik, and Muwaṭṭāʾ Muḥammad. Thereafter, in Shawwāl 1388, at a relatively young age whilst some of his teachers were also alive, he was appointed by Shaykh al-Ḥadīth Mawlānā Muḥammad Zakariyyā Kāndhelwī (d. 1402/1982) as Shaykh al-Ḥadīth and honoured with the privilege of teaching Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, a role Shaykh continued to fulfil to date. Herein is a lesson for Principals to appoint staff based on merit and competency and not simply based on lineage, financial status, ethnicity or closeness to the Principal. Shaykh al-Ḥadīth Mawlānā Muḥammad Zakariyyā Kāndhelwī’s appointment demonstrates how the Amānah of leadership should be fulfilled. Shaykh taught the entire Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī for fifty years and did so with an unprecedented level of devotion, passion and rigour, as clearly reflected in his unpublished Urdu transcripts of his lessons as well as the first volume of his Arabic commentary on the Ṣaḥīḥ, a review of which is available on this link.

It is worth noting that his appointment as Shaykh al-Ḥadīth at a relatively young age reflects the confidence of his teachers in him. Mawlānā Muḥammad Zakariyyā Kāndhelwī’s confidence in his student can be further gauged by the the fact that he has quoted his student’s views in his al-Abwāb wa al-Tarājim in at least three places (1:268, 419; 6:788) as well as in his footnotes on Lāmiʿ al-Dirārī (10:319), and he would regularly consult him and refer senior scholars to him particularly for ḥadīth related queries (see al-Yawāqīt al-Ghāliyah vols. 1 and 2). Scholars who would refer their queries to him include: Mufti Maḥmūd Ḥasan Gangohī, Shaykh Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī Nadwī, Mufti Yaḥyā, Mawlānā ʿAbd al-Jabbār, Mawlānā ʿĀqil, Mawlānā Abrār al-Ḥaq, Mawlānā ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm Jownpūrī, Mawlānā Saʿīd Aḥmad Khānṣāḥib and many others. In fact, in 1387, Mawlānā Muḥammad Zakariyyā Kāndhelwī wrote a handwritten letter to Shaykh wherein he stated that he will surpass him after forty seven years.

Shaykh Zakariyya's Letter Regarding Shaykh Yunus Jownpuri

A remarkable prediction not least because no one would have envisaged that Shaykh would live for this long due to his illnesses. Indeed, as Shaykh would regularly say in recent years that all my contemporaries have passed away. My respected father Mufti Shabbīr Aḥmad once said to Shaykh in response that this is a blessing of his attachment and devotion to ḥadīth for there is a famous Arabic saying that the scholars of ḥadīth live for long.

Students

Thus, from Shawwāl 1381 to 1438, Shaykh taught thousands of students from all over the world. For most of this period from 1388 onwards, he taught Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī and Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim. It was only a few years ago that he requested his student the current rector of the seminary, Mawlānā Salmān Ṣāḥib to teach Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim and Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī or appoint someone to do so. Mawlānā Salmān Ṣāḥib insisted that Shaykh continue to teach Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī and agreed to teach Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim. He told Shaykh that if he does not manage to complete the Ṣaḥīḥ, he will assist him if necessary. May Allah Almighty reward Mawlānā Salmān Ṣāḥib for he played a pivotal role in taking care of Shaykh until the very end.

Thousands of Shaykh’s students are benefiting humanity in different ways and many are leading scholars teaching Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī. Due to Shaykh’s knowledge and selflessness, he possessed universal appeal and attracted students from all over the world. Students from various schools of thought both in terms of creed and jurisprudence benefited from him and held him in high esteem. Along with the thousands of students from the Indian sub-continent, Shaykh has students in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, Syria, Somalia, Tunisia, Malaysia and many other countries. Many of the leading scholars of the Middle East benefited from Shaykh’s knowledge and company. Some regularly travelled to India whilst others would maximise benefit during Shaykh’s visits to Saudi Arabia for Hajj and Umrah. Some of Shaykh’s students include the following:

  1. Shaykh Salmān, the current rector of Maẓahir al-ʿUlūm Saharanpur, India.
  2. Shaykh ʿAbd al-Ḥāfiẓ Makkī of Saudi Arabia who passed away several months ago.
  3. Shaykh ʿAbd al-Waḥīd Makkī of Saudi Arabia.
  4. Mawlānā Zubayr al-Ḥasan Kāndhelwī of Nizamuddin Delhi who passed away.
  5. Shaykh Nūr al-Ḥasan Rāshid of Kandhla, India.
  6. Shaykh Muḥammad Ayyūb Surtī of the UK, the compiler of several publications of Shaykh listed below.
  7. Mufti Shabbir Aḥmad, the UK based Mufti and Ḥadīth lecturer.
  8. Shaykh Muḥammad Bilāl, the UK based scholar and Ḥadīth lecturer.
  9. Shaykh Yūsuf Motālā, the Principal of Darul Uloom Bury, UK.
  10. Mufti ʿAbd al-Ṣamad Aḥmad, the Principal of Darul Uloom Blackburn, UK.
  11. Shaykh Faḍl al-Ḥaq Wādī, the Principal of Jāmiʿah al-Kawthar Lancaster, UK.
  12. Mufti Musṭafā, the Principal of Darul Uloom London, UK.
  13. Mufti Muḥammad Ṭāhir Wādī, the UK based Mufti and Ḥadīth lecturer.
  14. Shaykh ʿAbd al-Raḥīm ibn Dāwūd, the UK based Ḥadīth lecturer.
  15. Dr Muḥammad Akram Nadwī, the UK based Ḥadīth lecturer and compiler of Shaykh’s thabt.
  16. Shaykh Ghulām Muḥammad Vastānwī, the rector of the famous seminary in Akkalkuwa, India.
  17. Shaykh Ḥanīf Luhārwī, the Shaykh al-Ḥadīth of Darul Uloom Kharod, India.
  18. Shaykh Yūsuf Tankārwī, the Shaykh al-Ḥadīth of Darul Uloom Tadkeshwar, India.
  19. Shaykh Zayd Nadwī of Nadwatul Ulama Lucknow.
  20. Shaykh Niẓām Yaʿqūbī of Bahrayn.
  21. Shaykh Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Malik ʿĀshūr of Saudi Arabia.
  22. Shaykh Dr ʿAbd Allah ibn Aḥmad al-Tūm of Saudi Arabia.
  23. Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Ḥarīrī of Saudi Arabia.
  24. Shaykh Farīd al-Bājī of Tunisia.
  25. Shaykh Nāṣir al-ʿAjmī of Kuwait.

Publications

Shaykh spent his entire life teaching the sacred sciences. I have heard Shaykh say on several occasions that he never thought of publishing any of his works. Nevertheless, attempts were made in recent years by his students to publish them.

The first most notable publication was the four volume al-Yawāqīt al-Ghāliyah, a unique collection of articles, questions and answers and treatises, mostly pertaining to ḥadīth matters. It would be remiss of me if I do not mention the efforts of our beloved Shaykh al-Ḥadīth Mawlānā Ayyūb Surtī who worked tirelessly from 2006 onwards to make this collection publishable. By the grace of Almighty Allah, I also had the honour of supporting him particularly in the publication of volume three, and all praise belongs to Allah alone. This collection is invaluable for students of knowledge and scholars particularly the final volume which is dedicated to reviewing all those narrations in the four Sunan that have been critiqued and deemed to be fabricated narrations. The third and fourth volumes are in Arabic whilst the first two volumes are a combination of Urdu and Arabic. Work has begun to translate the first two volumes into Arabic for wider benefit.

More recently, Shaykh had been working tirelessly on his Arabic notes on Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī. The first volume of Nibrās al-Sārī ilā Riyāḍ al-Bukhārī was published a few months ago and the second and third volume is due soon, with the will of Allah. We pray to Allah to give Shaykh’s students and in particular Shaykh al-Ḥadīth Mawlānā Ayyūb Surtī the ability to collate the remaining notes on the Ṣaḥīḥ and publish them. It is envisaged that the commentary will exceed ten volumes.

In addition to this, Shaykh has invaluable Arabic footnotes on the four Sunanincluding Sunan al-Tirmidhī the only book from the Ṣiḥāḥ Sittah which he did not teachIn addition, his footnotes on Mishkāt al-Maṣābīḥ, Badhl al-Majhūd and Fatḥ al-Bārī deserve particular attention because they are invaluable. Shaykh also has extremely beneficial Arabic notes on the entire Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim which I have benefited from and found useful. It focuses predominantly on that which is not in the prevalent commentaries of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim and thereby adds real value. In addition to this, my dear mother and Mawlānā Rashīd ibn Mawlānā Hāshim Ṣāḥib spent many years in writing the Urdu commentary of Ṣaḥīḥ Bukhārī from audio cassettes. This also deserves attention. We pray to Allah Almighty to make these and other efforts of Shaykh see the light of the day in a published format. Āmīn.

Ijazah of Hadith handwritten by Shaykh Yunus Sahib

Marriage and family 

Shaykh’s commitment and devotion to the sacred sciences and in particular the science of ḥadīth can be further gauged from the fact that he did not get married. He followed in the footsteps of great luminaries like Imam Nawawī, Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah and others who decided not to marry out of their commitment and devotion to the sacred sciences and to the service of the faith, not because they opposed marriage or regarded it as contrary to the Sunnah. Indeed, Shaykh expressly writes that denying the concept of marriage is akin to disbelief. Shaykh ʿAbd al-Fattāḥ Abū Ghuddah’s famous treatise is worth reading in this regard.

Shaykh leaves behind some nephews. However, since his appointment as a teacher, Shaykh always resided in the seminary and would say that my students are my family and encourage them to give charity on his behalf after his demise. Shaykh lived a life of loneliness, his mother passed away whilst he was five and his father passed away in the early 1990s. Shaykh had one brother who also passed away many years ago.

Zuhd, piety and selflessness

Shaykh’s commitment to the Prophetic ḥadīths and his academic credentials are well known. A facet of his life which is perhaps less well known is Shaykh’s piety, zuhd and selflessness. My respected father Mufti Shabbīr Aḥmad once said, “I have not seen anyone more selfless than Shaykh.” This morning, before my respected father departed for India, he informed me that Shaykh would regularly give him large amounts of money, sometimes hundreds of thousands Indian Rupees and send him to Maẓāhir al-ʿUlūm Qadīm as well as Maẓāhir al-ʿUlūm Jadīd to donate the money. This was regular and Shaykh would make significant contributions to both institutes. Understanding the context of this is necessary. In the 80s, the seminary split into two with Shaykh staying at Maẓāhir al-ʿUlūm Jadīd and major differences emerged with court battles which unfortunately continue to date. Despite this, Shaykh always remained objective and maintained relations by supporting the other seminary with large amounts of funds too. In fact, Shaykh once mentioned to my respected father that he has donated a house, which was gifted to him, to Maẓāhir al-ʿUlūm Qadīm. On one occasion he mentioned that for every book that has two copies, he has endowed a copy each to both seminaries.

Shaykh’s simplicity and selflessness is such that he spent his entire life in a room within the seminary. Shaykh himself mentions that during the first few years of becoming a teacher, he would take a salary from the seminary. However, he decided after a few years to adopt the path of tawakkul (total reliance on Allah) and stopped taking a salary. This proved extremely difficult for a few months and Allah Almighty opened other doors and accepted his supplication. Overall, Shaykh has endured lots of hardship and illnesses and was also affected by magic. Over the past few years, he would sleep on the floor in his room surrounded by books.

Shaykh’s assistant Mawlānā Yūnus Randerā informed me today that every year Shaykh would receive thousands of pounds of gifts from his visits to the UK and Ḥaramayn. Shaykh would say to Mawlānā Yūnus to distribute all the money for the taḥfīẓ project in Ḥaramayn or for some other good cause. In his most recent visit two months ago to Reunion, UK and Ḥaramayn, Shaykh received a very large sum of money as gifts. All of this was donated for the taḥfiẓ project and Shaykh did not take a single penny back to India. Shaykh was very supportive of children memorising the Qurʾān. In doing so, Shaykh was following the Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ who would immediately distribute whatever he would receive. What is even more amazing is that several years ago, Shaykh visited the UK and was informed that one of his students in the UK is in debt. Shaykh sent him £1,000 from his own money. I have never heard of an Indian scholar, let alone a scholar who is not financially wealthy, gift money to a person in the UK. It is unheard of. Once Shaykh gave my father some money that he had received and said, use it in the wedding of your daughters. There are many more examples of Shaykh’s detachment from the world and selflessness. Shaykh often described how in his early years he only possessed one bowl and would use it for cooking, eating, drinking, washing and other purposes. Shaykh was so poor that he did not have money to afford medicine or even paper to write on. This is why so many of his invaluable notes are written on the back of envelopes, postcards and old diaries.

Shaykh’s piety and taqwā is also worth mentioning. Mawlānā Yūnus narrates that a few years ago when Shaykh fell extremely ill, he phoned Ḥaḍrat Mawlānā Ṭalḥa Ṣāḥib, the son of Mawlānā Muḥammad Zakariyyā Kāndhelwī requesting forgiveness for a small piece of a newspaper which he had used in the era of his father from his house without his explicit permission. Shaykh explained that he has never used anyone’s possessions without their permission except on this one occasion in the house of Mawlānā Muḥammad Zakariyyā Kāndhelwī when Shaykh came across a reference and urgently required paper to make a note of it. He had no paper so he cut the side of a newspaper without taking express permission from the owner, Mawlānā Muḥammad Zakariyyā Kāndhelwī. Shaykh remembered this and sought forgiveness from his son Mawlānā Ṭalḥa. This is a quality we observed in Shaykh regularly, to seek forgiveness and encourage others to forgive. Shaykh would regularly quote the statement of Ḥaḍrat Mawlānā Ṣiddīq Bāndwī who said, “Forgive without being asked for forgiveness.” Another example of Shaykh’s caution is that a few years ago, Shaykh decided to purchase several new books for the seminary’s library despite those books existing in the library. Shaykh explained that he would regularly use some books from the library and sometimes add some useful references and notes therein. Whilst this was only adding value to the books and is of immense benefit to the reader, Shaykh decided to purchase new books by way of precaution. I have heard my respected father mention on numerous occasions, and I have also experienced this personally, that Shaykh generally adopts the cautious view in matters of jurisprudence. Shaykh’s piety was such that I once heard him say that I have only uttered a lie thrice and all three occasions were during my youth, once in fear of my mother, once in fear of my father, and once in fear of my teacher Mawlānā Ḍiyāʾ al-Ḥaq. Apart from these occasions, I have never lied.

hadith

Love of the Sunnah

One of the qualities that Shaykh will be remembered for is his uncompromising love of the Sunnah and his devotion to the ḥadīths. So much can be written in this regard. Shaykh left no stone unturned when it came to following or practising or defending the Sunnah and refuting innovations. I have witnessed Shaykh rebuke those who trim or shave their beards citing the Prophetic Sunnah. Likewise, Shaykh has no hesitation in refuting practices or ḥadīths that are not substantiated, for example, the sole fast of 15 Shaʿbān and regarding it as Sunnah.

Mawlana Yūnus Randera mentioned to me that since 2002, he performed Hajj with Shaykh every year consecutively and thus performed sixteen Hajjs with Shaykh and many ʿUmrahs. Prior to this, Shaykh performed Hajj on many occasions and it is my estimate that Shaykh performed at least twenty five Hajjs if not more. I also had the opportunity to perform Hajj with Shaykh once in 2002 and Shaykh stayed in our room. Shaykh would always reside in Mina on 13th Dhū al-Ḥijjah in accordance with the Sunnah. On one occasion, the 13th was a Friday and Shaykh said I will perform the Jumuʿah Ṣalāḥ in Mina and not in Masjid al-Ḥarām because it is Sunnah to stay in Mina on the 13th. During Hajj, Shaykh would always perform the stoning of the devil at the Sunnah time and in the Sunnah position. A few years ago when Shaykh was extremely ill, he was advised to avoid the rush hour. He refused and said I will go and I will die if I have to die whilst practising the Sunnah.

Two years ago, I also learnt that whilst travelling in Madinah Munawwarah, Shaykh would avoid using the AC and prefer to take in the blessed natural air of Madinah. Shaykh’s love of the Sunnah was such that despite his weakness he would visit the date trees orchard in Madinah Munawwarah. When he would consume the dates of Madinah Munawwarah, he would not throw the seeds in the bin but instruct for them to be buried out of respect.

Dreams regarding Shaykh    

It should therefore not come as a surprise that many people have seen good dreams regarding Shaykh. A scholar from Tunisia saw a dream more than a decade ago wherein the Prophet ﷺ described Shaykh as Amīr al-Muʾminīn fī al-Ḥadīth (the leader of the believers in ḥadīth).

A dream that is relevant to his demise was seen by his Arab student and disciple Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Ḥarīrī. Three years ago, he saw the Prophet ﷺ in his dream covered in a cloth, and when he uncovered his face, the person with the closest appearance was Shaykh. Today, Shaykh Ḥarīrī received the photographs of Shaykh and the surrounding scenary and suggested that the image was exactly what he saw in his dream three years ago including the greenery in the background.

Similarly, a local scholar from Manchester saw a dream today in which he saw Shaykh enter the Baqīʿ graveyard in the blessed city of Madīnah and raising his hands to make duʿā.

Some personal experiences

My respected father Mufti Shabbīr Aḥmad was very close to Shaykh and Shaykh treated us as though we were his family members and vice versa. For us, he was a fatherly figure who we would look up to since we were young and he would take a keen interest in our affairs. The close relationship with my father began in Shawwāl 1398 when my father enrolled in the penultimate year of the Alim course at the seminary in Saharanpur, where he also completed the Iftāʾ programme. During the three years, my father developed a very close relationship with Shaykh. He would cook for Shaykh daily and attend to his other needs. My father recalls that because of Shaykh’s poverty, he would instruct him to last a pigeon for two or three days when cooking food. Such was the relationship that Shaykh would call my father into his room and seek his support in marking examination papers for some of the classes and would confide in him. My father would read the matn (text) of both Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī and Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, and also read the entire Muwattāʾ Muḥammad on two occasions. It was through Shaykh’s blessings that my father developed a close attachment with the ḥadīths. Shaykh was not initially happy at him doing Iftāʾ, however, he advised him to stay connected with the ḥadīths at all times, a very useful advice which my respected father has always acted upon. When my father was leaving Saharanpur at the end of the three years to return to England, Shaykh came on a cycle rickshaw to Saharanpur train station to bid him farewell. Shaykh Yūsuf Tankārwī suggests that this is the only time Shaykh bid a student farewell in this manner.    

As a young child from the age of five, I recall when my father would write letters to Shaykh, we siblings would also write to Shaykh in English and subsequently in Urdu. My mother would always ensure we write something in large English fonts. I recall once writing to Shaykh when I started the penultimate year requesting his supplications and asking if he has the Isnads (chains) of Imam Tabrīzī, the author of Mishkāt al-Maṣābīh, to the authors of the books which he quotes from. Shaykh replied in the negative. My first recollection of meeting Shaykh was in 1997 when our parents took us five brothers and sisters to India for two months to tour all the famous seminaries in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere and meet with great saints and luminaries. We stayed with Shaykh for several weeks in Saharanpur and also travelled with Shaykh to Banda on the train. Although I was only nine years old, I recall Shaykh’s affection as he insisted we travel in a higher class with AC whilst he decided to travel in a lower class. My mother, may Allah Almighty bless her, recalls that I and my younger sister fell ill in Banda. Shaykh came especially to our room on the upper floor to pray for us and fulfil the Sunnah of visiting the sick. Throughout this visit and other interactions, Shaykh would fondly address my father similar to how a father addresses his child and recall his student days, and also remember our grandparents. During this visit, we also visited Jownpūr and Shaykh’s birth place and had the honour of meeting Shaykh’s teacher Mawlānā ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm Jownpūrī. This is the same Mawlānā ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm Jownpūrī who advised my respected father to follow his Shaykh referring to Shaykh Yūnus Ṣāḥib in all matters except in relation to marriage. Mawlānā ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm Jownpūrī visited the UK only once in 1985 and was very pleased to learn of the birth of my eldest brother Mawlānā Muḥammad.

As I grew up, there were many more opportunities in the UK and Saudi Arabia to spend time with Shaykh and benefit from him. I visited him many times in India and even when I was alone, he would be extremely generous and hospitable. He would not allow me to return except after feeding me. Shaykh visited our parent’s house on many occasions and also stayed the night on more than one occasion. On one occasion, I recall that the family had baked a cake in the shape of Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī and Shaykh did not hesitate in suggesting this is not appropriate. On one occasion in Shaʿbān 1434 (2013), I had the honour of reciting ten pages of Sunan al-Tirmidhī to Shaykh in Bolton at the residence of our late teacher Shaykh ʿUmarjī (d. 1435/2014), a disciple of Shaykh and someone who had utmost respect and admiration of Shaykh. During this visit, Shaykh also visited my house. Shaykh’s visits to the UK were an opportunity Shaykh ʿUmarjī and other associates of Shaykh would always look forward to. This was the only time when my respected father would miss his teaching, he would not even miss his teaching duties during the birth of his children.

Shaykh has had a huge influence on me both directly and indirectly through my teachers, the majority of whom are also students of Shaykh or their students. Before I joined the final year of the Alim class, Shaykh placed his hand on my head, supplicated for me and advised me in his room in India and said: When you read the ḥadīths, read it from the Prophetic lenses, as though the Prophet ﷺ is instructing you and talking to you. Do not read the ḥadīths with anyone else’s lenses. This advice is of particular relevance for students and scholars and assisted me in my final year and beyond, and all praise belongs to Allah alone.

Demise

After completing Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī in Saharanpur two to three months ago, Shaykh travelled to the UK to participate in the completion of the Ṣaḥīḥ in Darul Uloom Blackburn and other institutes. May Allah reward our beloved Mufti ʿAbd al-Ṣamad Aḥmad for inviting Shaykh year on year and hosting all the guests. From the UK, Shaykh travelled to Saudi Arabia for Umrah where Mawlānā Yūnus and my elder brother Mawlānā Muḥammad accompanied him. After spending a few days of Ramaḍān in Saudi Arabia, he travelled to India and spent the remaining month in Saharanpur.

Over the past few days, we received reports that Shaykh has fallen ill. It was not thought that the illness was in any way life threatening. Allah is the best of planners and He is the wisest. This morning at 7.30am local time, Shaykh became unconsciousness or semi-unconciousness and was taken to hospital and he passed away there. He passed away at approximately 5am British Summer Time (9.30am local time) on Tuesday 11 July 2017 / 17 Shawwāl 1438 (16 Shawwāl in India). His Janāzah Ṣalāh was led by Ḥaḍrat Mawlānā Ṭalḥa Ṣāḥib, with whom he enjoyed a very good and open relationship, in the Ḥājī Shāh graveyard after ʿAṣr Ṣalāh. Reports suggest that the Janāzah Ṣalāh was attended by approximately 1 million people. This has been confirmed by Mawlānā Junaid Ṣāḥib, the son in law of Mawlānā ʿĀqil Ṣāḥib. Other estimates suggest 200,000 people though this appears to be an underestimation. A more accurate estimate suggests 450,000. Either way, this reminds us of the Janāzah of Imam Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal in Baghdad that was attended by 800,000 people and the Janāzah of Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah in Damascus that was attended by 200,000 people. Shaykh had immense love for both Imams. Qārī Ayyūb Ṣāḥib, one of Shaykh’s disciples, who was also present in the Ghusl of Shaykh describes how the numbers of people were such that people were unable to pick up what was dropped. There were slippers and other possessions found later in the area. The Prophet ﷺ said, ‘If Allah loves a person, He calls Jibrīl: “Allah loves so and so, O Jibrīl, love him.” So Jibril loves him, and then Jibrīl makes an announcement among the residents of the Heaven, “Indeed, Allah loves so-and-so, therefore, you love him.” So, all the residents of the Heaven love him and then he is granted the acceptance among the people of the earth’ (Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, 6040). Shaykh is clearly an example of this. There were no relatives or family members present in his Janāzah Ṣalāh. Herein is a lesson for some people who in the past accused Shaykh of not adhering to the way of the elders. As Imam Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal is reported to have said, ‘Say to the People of Innovation, “between you and us is the funerals”’ (Manāqib al-Imām Aḥmad, p.560).

Shaykh was buried as per his wishes close to his beloved teacher Mawlānā Asʿadullāh Rāmpūrī. It was Shaykh’s waṣiyyah that Sūrah al-Fātiḥah be recited in the Janāzah Ṣalāh. It was also Shaykh’s Waṣiyyah to place a piece of the Kaʿbah’s cloth and soil from the blessed city of Madīnah in his grave, this was duly acted upon and has been actioned.

May Allah Almighty shower his mercy on Shaykh, grant him an abode in paradise and resurrect him with the Prophets, martyrs and pious people. Shaykh was always opposed to photos of all kinds. He requested Shaykh al-Islam Mufti Muḥammad Taqī ʿUthmānī Ṣāḥib on two separate occasions to re-consider the issue. It is therefore requested from all well wishers to avoid circulating photos or images of Shaykh whether taken before or after his demise.

Conclusion

It has been difficult to pen some of the above as the news of Shaykh’s demise is still being digested and the reality is sinking in. The death of a scholar is the death of the world. You only fully appreciate a bounty when it does not exist. The following are some thoughts that come to mind to benefit Shaykh and build on his legacy:

Firstly, it was Shaykh’s desire and instruction to his students to give charity on his behalf. Thus, all students, well wishers and readers are requested to donate whatever possible on behalf of Shaykh for the projects of their choice. Charity is the most powerful way of assisting and benefiting the deceased. With the will of Almighty Allah and after consulting with Shaykh’s senior students, Insha Allah, we will be aiming to build a mosque on Shaykh’s behalf with the option for people from all over the world to contribute towards this. Insha Allah, the details will be shared within the next few days.

Secondly, we need to reflect on Shaykh’s life and take heed accordingly. Shaykh’s life long service and love of the Sunnah, opposition to innovations, commitment to the ḥadīths and opposition to fabricated or baseless narrations and practices, championing established practices, his piety, adab and respect, selflessness, charitable endeavour and zuhd are all part of his legacy. Some of his discourses are available on this link for those who are interested in reading more. Undoubtedly, more will be shared over the course of next few days for people to reflect and ponder upon.

Thirdly, it would be good for a group of Shaykh’s students to form a team to publish his works in a coordinated manner under the supervision of the senior students of Shaykh. This is particularly important because many of Shaykh’s writings were not originally written for publication, and the same applies to his audio recordings.

May Allah Almighty shower his mercy on Shaykh, grant him an abode in paradise and resurrect him with the Prophets, martyrs and pious people. May Allah bless Maẓāhir al-ʿUlūm Saharanpur with a good replacement and protect it from all forms of evil and turmoils. Āmīn.

Mawlana Yusuf Shabbir

17 Shawwāl 1438 / 11 July 2017

www.nawadir.org

 

The New Year


 The New Year
by Shaykh Mawlānā Muhammad Saleem Dhorat hafizahullāh

Having just completed the year, the ‘New Year’ is seen and heard all around us. However, the question remains as to what should be a Muslim’s take on these events.

Upon the passing of a year, the common trend is to celebrate; people have birthday parties, wedding anniversaries etc. However, in certain spheres this is not the case; take the example of a businessman who at the end of the (financial) year will first take stock of the past year. He will meticulously go through the accounts of the past year taking into account every single penny. He will check to see if he made a profit, and if so then how can he make more in the coming year. He will check his expenses: where did he spend his money? Can he make further savings? All of this is done so that he can make the coming year more profitable than the one that has passed.
This should be the case at the end of the year in every Muslim’s life for we too have been sent to this world as businessmen with the commodity of time; which is life. We will have to one day give account for every second in the Court of Allāh ta‘ālā, when our books of deeds shall be presented.

We will bring forth a book for him that he will find wide open, (and We will say to him) ‘Read your book. Enough are you today to take your own account.’ (17:13-14)

‘Umar radhiyallāhu ‘anhu, emphasising the same, says:

Take stock of your own lives before Allāh ta‘ālā reckons you. And assess yourself before you are assessed by Allāh. And prepare yourselves for the great summoning.

It is our belief that on the Day of Judgement Allāh ta‘ālā will reckon us for everything that we did in the world.

On the day when everybody shall find present before him whatever good he did and whatever evil he did, he will wish there would have been a wide space between him and that (day). (3:30)

No matter how minute or trivial an act we did, we will find that it is present in our book of deeds.

So, whoever does any good act (even) to the weight of a particle will see it. And whoever does evil (even) to the weight of a particle will see it. (99:7-8)

This will be to the extent that in awe people will say:

‘Woe to us! What a book is this! It has missed nothing, minor or major, but has taken it into account.’ Thus they will find whatever they did present before them, and your Lord will not wrong anyone. (18:49)

We need to keep this reality in mind and spend our lives with regular reflection on our actions with Murāqabah and Muhāsabah. Murāqabah means to supervise and oversee oneself to ensure that he/she stays away from disobediences of Allāh ta‘ālā and spends every moment seeking the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā. Muhāsabah means taking account of one’s activities at the end of the day, week and year; and thanking Allāh ta‘ālā for the ability to have performed any good actions and seeking forgiveness for any sins one may have committed. Inshā’allāh, if this is adhered to, then we will see a great change in our lives. We will find ourselves spending every second of our lives with great care.

The end of a year is a time to reflect and say to yourself, ‘Another year from my precious life has passed. Who knows how many more years, if any, I have remaining?’ Let us spend them in those avenues that bring the pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā and stay away from those things that bring His displeasure, so that we can meet Allāh ta‘ālā in a state that He is pleased with us.

© Riyādul Jannah